The first thing we’ll study is the building blocks of code.
Statements are syntax constructs and commands that perform actions.
We’ve already seen a statement,
alert('Hello, world!'), which shows the message “Hello, world!”.
We can have as many statements in our code as we want. Statements can be separated with a semicolon.
For example, here we split “Hello World” into two alerts:
Usually, statements are written on separate lines to make the code more readable:
A semicolon may be omitted in most cases when a line break exists.
This would also work:
In most cases, a newline implies a semicolon. But “in most cases” does not mean “always”!
There are cases when a newline does not mean a semicolon. For example:
The code outputs
"+", then it is an “incomplete expression”, so the semicolon is not required. And in this case that works as intended.
Errors which occur in such cases are quite hard to find and fix.
If you’re curious to see a concrete example of such an error, check this code out:
No need to think about the meaning of the brackets
forEach yet. We’ll study them later. For now, just remember the result of the code: it shows
Now, let’s add an
alert before the code and not finish it with a semicolon:
Now if we run the code, only the first
alert is shown and then we have an error!
But everything is fine again if we add a semicolon after
Now we have the “All fine now” message followed by
So, because the semicolon is not auto-inserted, the code in the first example is treated as a single statement. Here’s how the engine sees it:
But it should be two separate statements, not one. Such a merging in this case is just wrong, hence the error. This can happen in other situations.
We recommend putting semicolons between statements even if they are separated by newlines. This rule is widely adopted by the community. Let’s note once again – it is possible to leave out semicolons most of the time. But it’s safer – especially for a beginner – to use them.
As time goes on, programs become more and more complex. It becomes necessary to add comments which describe what the code does and why.
Comments can be put into any place of a script. They don’t affect its execution because the engine simply ignores them.
One-line comments start with two forward slash characters
The rest of the line is a comment. It may occupy a full line of its own or follow a statement.
Multiline comments start with a forward slash and an asterisk
/* and end with an asterisk and a forward slash
The content of comments is ignored, so if we put code inside
/* … */, it won’t execute.
Sometimes it can be handy to temporarily disable a part of code:
In most editors, a line of code can be commented out by pressing the Ctrl+/ hotkey for a single-line comment and something like Ctrl+Shift+/ – for multiline comments (select a piece of code and press the hotkey). For Mac, try Cmd instead of Ctrl and Option instead of Shift.
Please, don’t hesitate to comment your code.
Comments increase the overall code footprint, but that’s not a problem at all. There are many tools which minify code before publishing to a production server. They remove comments, so they don’t appear in the working scripts. Therefore, comments do not have negative effects on production at all.
Later in the tutorial there will be a chapter Code quality that also explains how to write better comments.