December 12, 2021

Character classes

Consider a practical task – we have a phone number like "+7(903)-123-45-67", and we need to turn it into pure numbers: 79031234567.

To do so, we can find and remove anything that’s not a number. Character classes can help with that.

A character class is a special notation that matches any symbol from a certain set.

For the start, let’s explore the “digit” class. It’s written as \d and corresponds to “any single digit”.

For instance, let’s find the first digit in the phone number:

let str = "+7(903)-123-45-67";

let regexp = /\d/;

alert( str.match(regexp) ); // 7

Without the flag g, the regular expression only looks for the first match, that is the first digit \d.

Let’s add the g flag to find all digits:

let str = "+7(903)-123-45-67";

let regexp = /\d/g;

alert( str.match(regexp) ); // array of matches: 7,9,0,3,1,2,3,4,5,6,7

// let's make the digits-only phone number of them:
alert( str.match(regexp).join('') ); // 79031234567

That was a character class for digits. There are other character classes as well.

Most used are:

\d (“d” is from “digit”)
A digit: a character from 0 to 9.
\s (“s” is from “space”)
A space symbol: includes spaces, tabs \t, newlines \n and few other rare characters, such as \v, \f and \r.
\w (“w” is from “word”)
A “wordly” character: either a letter of Latin alphabet or a digit or an underscore _. Non-Latin letters (like cyrillic or hindi) do not belong to \w.

For instance, \d\s\w means a “digit” followed by a “space character” followed by a “wordly character”, such as 1 a.

A regexp may contain both regular symbols and character classes.

For instance, CSS\d matches a string CSS with a digit after it:

let str = "Is there CSS4?";
let regexp = /CSS\d/

alert( str.match(regexp) ); // CSS4

Also we can use many character classes:

alert( "I love HTML5!".match(/\s\w\w\w\w\d/) ); // ' HTML5'

The match (each regexp character class has the corresponding result character):

Inverse classes

For every character class there exists an “inverse class”, denoted with the same letter, but uppercased.

The “inverse” means that it matches all other characters, for instance:

Non-digit: any character except \d, for instance a letter.
Non-space: any character except \s, for instance a letter.
Non-wordly character: anything but \w, e.g a non-latin letter or a space.

In the beginning of the chapter we saw how to make a number-only phone number from a string like +7(903)-123-45-67: find all digits and join them.

let str = "+7(903)-123-45-67";

alert( str.match(/\d/g).join('') ); // 79031234567

An alternative, shorter way is to find non-digits \D and remove them from the string:

let str = "+7(903)-123-45-67";

alert( str.replace(/\D/g, "") ); // 79031234567

A dot is “any character”

A dot . is a special character class that matches “any character except a newline”.

For instance:

alert( "Z".match(/./) ); // Z

Or in the middle of a regexp:

let regexp = /CS.4/;

alert( "CSS4".match(regexp) ); // CSS4
alert( "CS-4".match(regexp) ); // CS-4
alert( "CS 4".match(regexp) ); // CS 4 (space is also a character)

Please note that a dot means “any character”, but not the “absence of a character”. There must be a character to match it:

alert( "CS4".match(/CS.4/) ); // null, no match because there's no character for the dot

Dot as literally any character with “s” flag

By default, a dot doesn’t match the newline character \n.

For instance, the regexp A.B matches A, and then B with any character between them, except a newline \n:

alert( "A\nB".match(/A.B/) ); // null (no match)

There are many situations when we’d like a dot to mean literally “any character”, newline included.

That’s what flag s does. If a regexp has it, then a dot . matches literally any character:

alert( "A\nB".match(/A.B/s) ); // A\nB (match!)
Not supported in IE

The s flag is not supported in IE.

Luckily, there’s an alternative, that works everywhere. We can use a regexp like [\s\S] to match “any character” (this pattern will be covered in the article Sets and ranges [...]).

alert( "A\nB".match(/A[\s\S]B/) ); // A\nB (match!)

The pattern [\s\S] literally says: “a space character OR not a space character”. In other words, “anything”. We could use another pair of complementary classes, such as [\d\D], that doesn’t matter. Or even the [^] – as it means match any character except nothing.

Also we can use this trick if we want both kind of “dots” in the same pattern: the actual dot . behaving the regular way (“not including a newline”), and also a way to match “any character” with [\s\S] or alike.

Pay attention to spaces

Usually we pay little attention to spaces. For us strings 1-5 and 1 - 5 are nearly identical.

But if a regexp doesn’t take spaces into account, it may fail to work.

Let’s try to find digits separated by a hyphen:

alert( "1 - 5".match(/\d-\d/) ); // null, no match!

Let’s fix it adding spaces into the regexp \d - \d:

alert( "1 - 5".match(/\d - \d/) ); // 1 - 5, now it works
// or we can use \s class:
alert( "1 - 5".match(/\d\s-\s\d/) ); // 1 - 5, also works

A space is a character. Equal in importance with any other character.

We can’t add or remove spaces from a regular expression and expect it to work the same.

In other words, in a regular expression all characters matter, spaces too.


There exist following character classes:

  • \d – digits.
  • \D – non-digits.
  • \s – space symbols, tabs, newlines.
  • \S – all but \s.
  • \w – Latin letters, digits, underscore '_'.
  • \W – all but \w.
  • . – any character if with the regexp 's' flag, otherwise any except a newline \n.

…But that’s not all!

Unicode encoding, used by JavaScript for strings, provides many properties for characters, like: which language the letter belongs to (if it’s a letter), is it a punctuation sign, etc.

We can search by these properties as well. That requires flag u, covered in the next article.

Tutorial map


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