Most of the time, a JavaScript application needs to work with information. Here are 2 examples:

  1. An online-shop – the information might include goods being sold and a shopping cart.
  2. A chat application – the information might include users, messages, and much more.

Variables are used to store this information.

A variable

A variable is a “named storage” for data. We can use variables to store goodies, visitors and other data.

To create a variable in JavaScript, we need to use the let keyword.

The statement below creates (in other words: declares or defines) a variable with the name “message”:

let message;

Now we can put some data into it by using the assignment operator =:

let message;

message = 'Hello'; // store the string

The string is now saved into the memory area associated with the variable. We can access it using the variable name:

let message;
message = 'Hello!';

alert(message); // shows the variable content

To be concise we can merge the variable declaration and assignment into a single line:

let message = 'Hello!'; // define the variable and assign the value

alert(message); // Hello!

We can also declare multiple variables in one line:

let user = 'John', age = 25, message = 'Hello';

That might seem shorter, but it’s not recommended. For the sake of better readability, please use a single line per variable.

The multiline variant is a bit longer, but easier to read:

let user = 'John';
let age = 25;
let message = 'Hello';

Some people also write many variables like that:

let user = 'John',
  age = 25,
  message = 'Hello';

…Or even in the “comma-first” style:

let user = 'John'
  , age = 25
  , message = 'Hello';

Technically, all these variants do the same. So, it’s a matter of personal taste and aesthetics.

var instead of let

In older scripts you may also find another keyword: var instead of let:

var message = 'Hello';

The var keyword is almost the same as let. It also declares a variable, but in a slightly different, “old-school” fashion.

There are subtle differences between let and var, but they do not matter for us yet. We’ll cover them in detail later, in the chapter The old "var".

A real-life analogy

We can easily grasp the concept of a “variable” if we imagine it as a “box” for data, with a uniquely-named sticker on it.

For instance, the variable message can be imagined as a box labelled "message" with the value "Hello!" in it:

We can put any value into the box.

Also we can change it. The value can be changed as many times as needed:

let message;

message = 'Hello!';

message = 'World!'; // value changed


When the value is changed, the old data is removed from the variable:

We can also declare two variables and copy data from one into the other.

let hello = 'Hello world!';

let message;

// copy 'Hello world' from hello into message
message = hello;

// now two variables hold the same data
alert(hello); // Hello world!
alert(message); // Hello world!
Functional languages

It may be interesting to know that there also exist functional programming languages that forbid changing a variable value. For example, Scala or Erlang.

In such languages, once the value is stored “in the box”, it’s there forever. If we need to store something else, the language forces us to create a new box (declare a new variable). We can’t reuse the old one.

Though it may seem a little bit odd at first sight, these languages are quite capable of serious development. More than that, there are areas like parallel computations where this limitation confers certain benefits. Studying such a language (even if not planning to use it soon) is recommended to broaden the mind.

Variable naming

There are two limitations for a variable name in JavaScript:

  1. The name must contain only letters, digits, symbols $ and _.
  2. The first character must not be a digit.

Valid names, for instance:

let userName;
let test123;

When the name contains multiple words, camelCase is commonly used. That is: words go one after another, each word starts with a capital letter: myVeryLongName.

What’s interesting – the dollar sign '$' and the underscore '_' can also be used in names. They are regular symbols, just like letters, without any special meaning.

These names are valid:

let $ = 1; // declared a variable with the name "$"
let _ = 2; // and now a variable with the name "_"

alert($ + _); // 3

Examples of incorrect variable names:

let 1a; // cannot start with a digit

let my-name; // a hyphen '-' is not allowed in the name
Case matters

Variables named apple and AppLE – are two different variables.

Non-english letters are allowed, but not recommended

It is possible to use any language, including cyrillic letters or even hieroglyphs, like this:

let имя = '...';
let 我 = '...';

Technically, there is no error here, such names are allowed, but there is an international tradition to use English in variable names. Even if we’re writing a small script, it may have a long life ahead. People from other countries may need to read it some time.

Reserved names

There is a list of reserved words, which cannot be used as variable names, because they are used by the language itself.

For example, words let, class, return, function are reserved.

The code below gives a syntax error:

let let = 5; // can't name a variable "let", error!
let return = 5; // also can't name it "return", error!
An assignment without use strict

Normally, we need to define a variable before using it. But in the old times, it was technically possible to create a variable by a mere assignment of the value, without let. This still works now if we don’t put use strict. The behavior is kept for compatibility with old scripts.

// note: no "use strict" in this example

num = 5; // the variable "num" is created if didn't exist

alert(num); // 5

That’s a bad practice, it gives an error in the strict mode:

"use strict";

num = 5; // error: num is not defined


To declare a constant (unchanging) variable, one can use const instead of let:

const myBirthday = '18.04.1982';

Variables declared using const are called “constants”. They cannot be changed. An attempt to do it would cause an error:

const myBirthday = '18.04.1982';

myBirthday = '01.01.2001'; // error, can't reassign the constant!

When a programmer is sure that the variable should never change, he can use const to guarantee it, and also to clearly show that fact to everyone.

Uppercase constants

There is a widespread practice to use constants as aliases for difficult-to-remember values that are known prior to execution.

Such constants are named using capital letters and underscores.

Like this:

const COLOR_RED = "#F00";
const COLOR_GREEN = "#0F0";
const COLOR_BLUE = "#00F";
const COLOR_ORANGE = "#FF7F00";

// ...when we need to pick a color
let color = COLOR_ORANGE;
alert(color); // #FF7F00


  • COLOR_ORANGE is much easier to remember than "#FF7F00".
  • It is much easier to mistype in "#FF7F00" than in COLOR_ORANGE.
  • When reading the code, COLOR_ORANGE is much more meaningful than #FF7F00.

When should we use capitals for a constant, and when should we name them normally? Let’s make that clear.

Being a “constant” just means that the value never changes. But there are constants that are known prior to execution (like a hexadecimal value for red), and there are those that are calculated in run-time, during the execution, but do not change after the assignment.

For instance:

const pageLoadTime = /* time taken by a webpage to load */;

The value of pageLoadTime is not known prior to the page load, so it’s named normally. But it’s still a constant, because it doesn’t change after assignment.

In other words, capital-named constants are only used as aliases for “hard-coded” values.

Name things right

Talking about variables, there’s one more extremely important thing.

Please name the variables sensibly. Take time to think if needed.

Variable naming is one of the most important and complex skills in programming. A quick glance at variable names can reveal which code is written by a beginner and which by an experienced developer.

In a real project, most of the time is spent on modifying and extending the existing code base, rather than writing something completely separate from scratch. And when we return to the code after some time of doing something else, it’s much easier to find information that is well-labelled. Or, in other words, when the variables have good names.

Please spend some time thinking about the right name for a variable before declaring it. That will repay you a lot.

Some good-to-follow rules are:

  • Use human-readable names like userName or shoppingCart.
  • Stay away from abbreviations or short names like a, b, c, unless you really know what you’re doing.
  • Make the name maximally descriptive and concise. Examples of bad names are data and value. Such a name says nothing. It is only ok to use them if it’s exceptionally obvious from the context which data or value is meant.
  • Agree on terms within your team and in your own mind. If a site visitor is called a “user” then we should name related variables like currentUser or newUser, but not currentVisitor or a newManInTown.

Sounds simple? Indeed it is, but creating good descriptive-and-concise names in practice is not. Go for it.

Reuse or create?

And the last note. There are some lazy programmers who, instead of declaring a new variable, tend to reuse the existing ones.

As a result, the variable is like a box where people throw different things without changing the sticker. What is inside it now? Who knows… We need to come closer and check.

Such a programmer saves a little bit on variable declaration, but loses ten times more on debugging the code.

An extra variable is good, not evil.

Modern JavaScript minifiers and browsers optimize code well enough, so it won’t create performance issues. Using different variables for different values can even help the engine to optimize.


We can declare variables to store data. That can be done using var or let or const.

  • let – is a modern variable declaration. The code must be in strict mode to use let in Chrome (V8).
  • var – is an old-school variable declaration. Normally we don’t use it at all, but we’ll cover subtle differences from let in the chapter The old "var", just in case you need them.
  • const – is like let, but the value of the variable can’t be changed.

Variables should be named in a way that allows us to easily understand what’s inside.


importance: 2
  1. Declare two variables: admin and name.
  2. Assign the value "John" to name.
  3. Copy the value from name to admin.
  4. Show the value of admin using alert (must output “John”).

In the code below, each line corresponds to the item in the task list.

let admin, name; // can declare two variables at once

name = "John";

admin = name;

alert( admin ); // "John"
importance: 3
  1. Create the variable with the name of our planet. How would you name such a variable?
  2. Create the variable to store the name of the current visitor. How would you name that variable?

First, the variable for the name of our planet.

That’s simple:

let ourPlanetName = "Earth";

Note, we could use a shorter name planet, but it might be not obvious what planet it refers to. It’s nice to be more verbose. At least until the variable isNotTooLong.

Second, the name of the current visitor:

let currentUserName = "John";

Again, we could shorten that to userName if we know for sure that the user is current.

Modern editors and autocomplete make long variable names easy to write. Don’t save on them. A name with 3 words in it is fine.

And if your editor does not have proper autocompletion, get a new one.

importance: 4

Examine the following code:

const birthday = '18.04.1982';

const age = someCode(birthday);

Here we have a constant birthday date and the age is calculated from birthday with the help of some code (it is not provided for shortness, and because details don’t matter here).

Would it be right to use upper case for birthday? For age? Or even for both?

const BIRTHDAY = '18.04.1982'; // make uppercase?

const AGE = someCode(BIRTHDAY); // make uppercase?

We generally use upper case for constants that are “hard-coded”. Or, in other words, when the value is known prior to execution and directly written into the code.

In this code, birthday is exactly like that. So we could use the upper case for it.

In contrast, age is evaluated in run-time. Today we have one age, a year after we’ll have another one. It is constant in a sense that it does not change through the code execution. But it is a bit “less of a constant” than birthday, it is calculated, so we should keep the lower case for it.

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