Proxy and Reflect

A proxy wraps another object and intercepts operations, like reading/writing properties and others, optionally handling them on its own, or transparently allowing the object to handle them.

Proxies are used in many libraries and some browser frameworks. We’ll see many practical applications in this chapter.

The syntax:

let proxy = new Proxy(target, handler)
  • target – is an object to wrap, can be anything, including functions.
  • handler – an object with “traps”: methods that intercept operations., e.g. get for reading a property, set for writing a property, etc.

For operations on proxy, if there’s a corresponding trap in handler, then it runs, and the proxy has a chance to handle it, otherwise the operation is performed on target.

As a starting example, let’s create a proxy without any traps:

let target = {};
let proxy = new Proxy(target, {}); // empty handler

proxy.test = 5; // writing to proxy (1)
alert(target.test); // 5, the property appeared in target!

alert(proxy.test); // 5, we can read it from proxy too (2)

for(let key in proxy) alert(key); // test, iteration works (3)

As there are no traps, all operations on proxy are forwarded to target.

  1. A writing operation proxy.test= sets the value on target.
  2. A reading operation proxy.test returns the value from target.
  3. Iteration over proxy returns values from target.

As we can see, without any traps, proxy is a transparent wrapper around target.

The proxy is a special “exotic object”. It doesn’t have “own” properties. With an empty handler it transparently forwards operations to target.

If we want any magic, we should add traps.

There’s a list of internal object operations in the Proxy specification. A proxy can intercept any of these, we just need to add a handler method.

In the table below:

  • Internal Method is the specification-specific name for the operation. For example, [[Get]] is the name of the internal, specification-only method of reading a property. The specification describes how this is done at the very lowest level.
  • Handler Method is a method name that we should add to proxy handler to trap the operation and perform custom actions.
Internal Method Handler Method Traps…
[[Get]] get reading a property
[[Set]] set writing to a property
[[HasProperty]] has in operator
[[Delete]] deleteProperty delete operator
[[Call]] apply function call
[[Construct]] construct new operator
[[GetPrototypeOf]] getPrototypeOf Object.getPrototypeOf
[[SetPrototypeOf]] setPrototypeOf Object.setPrototypeOf
[[IsExtensible]] isExtensible Object.isExtensible
[[PreventExtensions]] preventExtensions Object.preventExtensions
[[GetOwnProperty]] getOwnPropertyDescriptor Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor
[[DefineOwnProperty]] defineProperty Object.defineProperty, Object.defineProperties
[[OwnPropertyKeys]] ownKeys Object.keys, Object.getOwnPropertyNames, Object.getOwnPropertySymbols, iteration keys
Invariants

JavaScript enforces some invariants – conditions that must be fulfilled by internal methods and traps.

Most of them are for return values:

  • [[Set]] must return true if the value was written successfully, otherwise false.
  • [[Delete]] must return true if the value was deleted successfully, otherwise false.
  • …and so on, we’ll see more in examples below.

There are some other invariants, like:

  • [[GetPrototypeOf]], applied to the proxy object must return the same value as [[GetPrototypeOf]] applied to the proxy object’s target object.

In other words, reading prototype of a proxy must always return the prototype of the target object. The getPrototypeOf trap may intercept this operation, but it must follow this rule, not do something crazy.

Invariants ensure correct and consistent behavior of language features. The full invariants list is in the specification, you probably won’t violate them, if not doing something weird.

Let’s see how that works on practical examples.

Default value with “get” trap

The most common traps are for reading/writing properties.

To intercept the reading, the handler should have a method get(target, property, receiver).

It triggers when a property is read:

  • target – is the target object, the one passed as the first argument to new Proxy,
  • property – property name,
  • receiver – if the property is a getter, then receiver is the object that’s going to be used as this in that code. Usually that’s the proxy object itself (or an object that inherits from it, if we inherit from proxy).

Let’s use get to implement default values for an object.

For instance, we’d like a numeric array to return 0 for non-existant values instead of undefined.

Let’s wrap it into a proxy that traps reading and returns the default value if there’s no such property:

let numbers = [0, 1, 2];

numbers = new Proxy(numbers, {
  get(target, prop) {
    if (prop in target) {
      return target[prop];
    } else {
      return 0; // default value
    }
  }
});

alert( numbers[1] ); // 1
alert( numbers[123] ); // 0 (no such value)

The approach is generic. We can use Proxy to implement any logic for “default” values.

Imagine, we have a dictionary with phrases along with translations:

let dictionary = {
  'Hello': 'Hola',
  'Bye': 'Adiós'
};

alert( dictionary['Hello'] ); // Hola
alert( dictionary['Welcome'] ); // undefined

Right now, if there’s no phrase, reading from dictionary returns undefined. But in practice, leaving a phrase non-translated is usually better than undefined. So let’s make a non-translated phrase the default value instead of undefined.

To achieve that, we’ll wrap dictionary in a proxy that intercepts reading operations:

let dictionary = {
  'Hello': 'Hola',
  'Bye': 'Adiós'
};

dictionary = new Proxy(dictionary, {
  get(target, phrase) { // intercept reading a property from dictionary
    if (phrase in target) { // if we have it in the dictionary
      return target[phrase]; // return the translation
    } else {
      // otherwise, return the non-translated phrase
      return phrase;
    }
  }
});

// Look up arbitrary phrases in the dictionary!
// At worst, they are not translated.
alert( dictionary['Hello'] ); // Hola
alert( dictionary['Welcome to Proxy']); // Welcome to Proxy (no translation)
Proxy should be used instead of target everywhere

Please note how the proxy overwrites the variable:

dictionary = new Proxy(dictionary, ...);
numbers = new Proxy(numbers, ...);

The proxy should totally replace the target object everywhere. No one should ever reference the target object after it got proxied. Otherwise it’s easy to mess up.

Validation with “set” trap

Now let’s intercept writing as well.

Let’s say we want a numeric array. If a value of another type is added, there should be an error.

The set trap triggers when a property is written: set(target, property, value, receiver)

  • target – is the target object, the one passed as the first argument to new Proxy,
  • property – property name,
  • value – property value,
  • receiver – same as in get trap, only matters if the property is a setter.

The set trap should return true if setting is successful, and false otherwise (leads to TypeError).

Let’s use it to validate new values:

let numbers = [];

numbers = new Proxy(numbers, { // (*)
  set(target, prop, val) { // to intercept property writing
    if (typeof val == 'number') {
      target[prop] = val;
      return true;
    } else {
      return false;
    }
  }
});

numbers.push(1);
numbers.push(2);
alert("Length is: " + numbers.length); // 2

numbers.push("test"); // TypeError ('set' on proxy returned false)

alert("This line is never reached (error in the line above)");

Please note: the built-in functionality of arrays is still working! The length property auto-increases when values are added. Our proxy doesn’t break anything.

Also, we don’t have to override value-adding array methods like push and unshift, and so on! Internally, they use [[Set]] operation, that’s intercepted by the proxy.

So the code is clean and concise.

Don’t forget to return true

As said above, there are invariants to be held.

For set, it must return true for a successful write.

If it returns a falsy value (or doesn’t return anything), that triggers TypeError.

Protected properties with “deleteProperty” and “ownKeys”

There’s a widespread convention that properties and methods prefixed by an underscore _ are internal. They shouldn’t be accessible from outside the object.

Technically, that’s possible though:

let user = {
  name: "John",
  _password: "secret"
};

alert(user._password); // secret

Let’s use proxies to prevent any access to properties starting with _.

We’ll need the traps:

  • get to throw an error when reading,
  • set to throw an error when writing,
  • deleteProperty to throw an error when deleting,
  • ownKeys to skip properties starting with _ when iterating over an object or using Object.keys()

Here’s the code:

let user = {
  name: "John",
  _password: "***"
};

user = new Proxy(user, {
  get(target, prop) {
    if (prop.startsWith('_')) {
      throw new Error("Access denied");
    }
    let value = target[prop];
    return (typeof value === 'function') ? value.bind(target) : value; // (*)
  },
  set(target, prop, val) { // to intercept property writing
    if (prop.startsWith('_')) {
      throw new Error("Access denied");
    } else {
      target[prop] = val;
    }
  },
  deleteProperty(target, prop) { // to intercept property deletion
    if (prop.startsWith('_')) {
      throw new Error("Access denied");
    } else {
      delete target[prop];
      return true;
    }
  },
  ownKeys(target) { // to intercept property list
    return Object.keys(target).filter(key => !key.startsWith('_'));
  }
});

// "get" doesn't allow to read _password
try {
  alert(user._password); // Error: Access denied
} catch(e) { alert(e.message); }

// "set" doesn't allow to write _password
try {
  user._password = "test"; // Error: Access denied
} catch(e) { alert(e.message); }

// "deleteProperty" doesn't allow to delete _password
try {
  delete user._password; // Error: Access denied
} catch(e) { alert(e.message); }

// "ownKeys" filters out _password
for(let key in user) alert(key); // name

Please note the important detail in get trap, in the line (*):

get(target, prop) {
  // ...
  let value = target[prop];
  return (typeof value === 'function') ? value.bind(target) : value; // (*)
}

If an object method is called, such as user.checkPassword(), it must be able to access _password:

user = {
  // ...
  checkPassword(value) {
    // object method must be able to read _password
    return value === this._password;
  }
}

Normally, user.checkPassword() call gets proxied user as this (the object before dot becomes this), so when it tries to access this._password, the property protection kicks in and throws an error. So we bind it to target in the line (*). Then all operations from that function directly reference the object, without any property protection.

That solution is not ideal, as the method may pass the unproxied object somewhere else, and then we’ll get messed up: where’s the original object, and where’s the proxied one.

As an object may be proxied multiple times (multiple proxies may add different “tweaks” to the object), weird bugs may follow.

So, for complex objects with methods such proxy shouldn’t be used.

Private properties of a class

Modern JavaScript engines natively support private properties in classes, prefixed with #. They are described in the chapter Private and protected properties and methods. No proxies required.

Such properties have their own issues though. In particular, they are not inherited.

“In range” with “has” trap

Let’s say we have a range object:

let range = {
  start: 1,
  end: 10
};

We’d like to use “in” operator to check that a number is in range.

The “has” trap intercepts “in” calls: has(target, property)

  • target – is the target object, passed as the first argument to new Proxy,
  • property – property name

Here’s the demo:

let range = {
  start: 1,
  end: 10
};

range = new Proxy(range, {
  has(target, prop) {
    return prop >= target.start && prop <= target.end
  }
});

alert(5 in range); // true
alert(50 in range); // false

A nice syntactic sugar, isn’t it?

Wrapping functions: “apply”

We can wrap a proxy around a function as well.

The apply(target, thisArg, args) trap handles calling a proxy as function:

  • target is the target object,
  • thisArg is the value of this.
  • args is a list of arguments.

For example, let’s recall delay(f, ms) decorator, that we did in the chapter Decorators and forwarding, call/apply.

In that chapter we did it without proxies. A call to delay(f, ms) would return a function that forwards all calls to f after ms milliseconds.

Here’s the function-based implementation:

// no proxies, just a function wrapper
function delay(f, ms) {
  // return a wrapper that passes the call to f after the timeout
  return function() { // (*)
    setTimeout(() => f.apply(this, arguments), ms);
  };
}

function sayHi(user) {
  alert(`Hello, ${user}!`);
}

// now calls to sayHi will be delayed for 3 seconds
sayHi = delay(sayHi, 3000);

sayHi("John"); // Hello, John! (after 3 seconds)

As you can see, that mostly works. The wrapper function (*) performs the call after the timeout.

But a wrapper function does not forward property read/write operations or anything else. So if we have a property on the original function, we can’t access it after wrapping:

function delay(f, ms) {
  return function() {
    setTimeout(() => f.apply(this, arguments), ms);
  };
}

function sayHi(user) {
  alert(`Hello, ${user}!`);
}

alert(sayHi.length); // 1 (function length is the arguments count)

sayHi = delay(sayHi, 3000);

alert(sayHi.length); // 0 (wrapper has no arguments)

Proxy is much more powerful, as it forwards everything to the target object.

Let’s use Proxy instead of a wrapping function:

function delay(f, ms) {
  return new Proxy(f, {
    apply(target, thisArg, args) {
      setTimeout(() => target.apply(thisArg, args), ms);
    }
  });
}

function sayHi(user) {
  alert(`Hello, ${user}!`);
}

sayHi = delay(sayHi, 3000);

alert(sayHi.length); // 1 (*) proxy forwards "get length" operation to the target

sayHi("John"); // Hello, John! (after 3 seconds)

The result is the same, but now not only calls, but all operations on the proxy are forwarded to the original function. So sayHi.length is returned correctly after the wrapping in the line (*).

We’ve got a “richer” wrapper.

There exist other traps, but probably you’ve already got the idea.

Reflect

The Reflect API was designed to work in tandem with Proxy.

For every internal object operation that can be trapped, there’s a Reflect method. It has the same name and arguments as the trap, and can be used to forward the operation to an object.

For example:

let user = {
  name: "John",
};

user = new Proxy(user, {
  get(target, prop, receiver) {
    alert(`GET ${prop}`);
    return Reflect.get(target, prop, receiver); // (1)
  },
  set(target, prop, val, receiver) {
    alert(`SET ${prop} TO ${val}`);
    return Reflect.set(target, prop, val, receiver); // (2)
  }
});

let name = user.name; // GET name
user.name = "Pete"; // SET name TO Pete
  • Reflect.get gets the property, like target[prop] that we used before.
  • Reflect.set sets the property, like target[prop] = value, and also ensures the correct return value.

In most cases, we can do the same thing without Reflect. But we may miss some peculiar aspects.

Consider the following example, it doesn’t use Reflect and doesn’t work right.

We have a proxied user object and inherit from it, then use a getter:

let user = {
  _name: "Guest",
  get name() {
    return this._name;
  }
};

user = new Proxy(user, {
  get(target, prop, receiver) {
    return target[prop]; // (*)
  }
});


let admin = {
  __proto__: user,
  _name: "Admin"
};

// Expected: Admin
alert(admin.name); // Guest (?!?)

As you can see, the result is incorrect! The admin.name is expected to be "Admin", not "Guest"! Without the proxy, it would be "Admin", looks like the proxying “broke” our object.

Why this happens? That’s easy to understand if we explore what’s going on during the call in the last line of the code.

  1. There’s no name property in admin, so admin.name call goes to admin prototype.
  2. The prototype is the proxy, so its get trap intercepts the attempt to read name.
  3. In the line (*) it returns target[prop], but what is the target?
    • The target, the first argument of get, is always the object passed to new Proxy, the original user.
    • So, target[prop] invokes the getter name with this=target=user.
    • Hence the result is "Guest".

How to fix it? That’s what the receiver, the third argument of get is for! It holds the correct this. We just need to call Reflect.get to pass it on.

Here’s the correct variant:

let user = {
  _name: "Guest",
  get name() {
    return this._name;
  }
};

user = new Proxy(user, {
  get(target, prop, receiver) {
    return Reflect.get(target, prop, receiver); // (*)
  }
});


let admin = {
  __proto__: user,
  _name: "Admin"
};

alert(admin.name); // Admin

Now the receiver holding the correct this is passed to getter by Reflect.get in the line (*), so it works correctly.

We could also write the trap as:

get(target, prop, receiver) {
  return Reflect.get(...arguments);
}

Reflect calls are named exactly the same way as traps and accept the same arguments. They were specifically designed this way.

So, return Reflect... provides a safe no-brainer to forward the operation and make sure we don’t forget anything related to that.

Proxy limitations

Proxies are a great way to alter or tweak the behavior of the existing objects, including built-in ones, such as arrays.

Still, it’s not perfect. There are limitations.

Built-in objects: Internal slots

Many built-in objects, for example Map, Set, Date, Promise and others make use of so-called “internal slots”.

These are like properties, but reserved for internal purposes. Built-in methods access them directly, not via [[Get]]/[[Set]] internal methods. So Proxy can’t intercept that.

Who cares? They are internal anyway!

Well, here’s the issue. After such built-in object gets proxied, the proxy doesn’t have these internal slots, so built-in methods will fail.

For example:

let map = new Map();

let proxy = new Proxy(map, {});

proxy.set('test', 1); // Error

An attempt to set a value into a proxied Map fails, for the reason related to its internal implementation.

Internally, a Map stores all data in its [[MapData]] internal slot. The proxy doesn’t have such slot. The set method tries to access this.[[MapData]] internal property, but because this=proxy, can’t find it in proxy and just fails.

Fortunately, there’s a way to fix it:

let map = new Map();

let proxy = new Proxy(map, {
  get(target, prop, receiver) {
    let value = Reflect.get(...arguments);
    return typeof value == 'function' ? value.bind(target) : value;
  }
});

proxy.set('test', 1);
alert(proxy.get('test')); // 1 (works!)

Now it works fine, because get trap binds function properties, such as map.set, to the target object (map) itself.

Unlike the previous example, the value of this inside proxy.set(...) will be not proxy, but the original map. So when the internal implementation of set tries to access this.[[MapData]] internal slot, it succeeds.

Array has no internal slots

A notable exception: built-in Array doesn’t use internal slots. That’s for historical reasons, as it appeared so long ago.

So there’s no such problem when proxying an array.

Private fields

The similar thing happens with private class fields.

For example, getName() method accesses the private #name property and breaks after proxying:

class User {
  #name = "Guest";

  getName() {
    return this.#name;
  }
}

let user = new User();

user = new Proxy(user, {});

alert(user.getName()); // Error

The reason is that private fields are implemented using internal slots. JavaScript does not use [[Get]]/[[Set]] when accessing them.

In the call user.getName() the value of this is the proxied user, and it doesn’t have the slot with private fields.

Once again, the solution with binding the method makes it work:

class User {
  #name = "Guest";

  getName() {
    return this.#name;
  }
}

let user = new User();

user = new Proxy(user, {
  get(target, prop, receiver) {
    let value = Reflect.get(...arguments);
    return typeof value == 'function' ? value.bind(target) : value;
  }
});

alert(user.getName()); // Guest

That said, the solution has drawbacks, explained previously: it exposes the original object to the method, potentially allowing it to be passed further and breaking other proxied functionality.

Proxy != target

Proxy and the original object are different objects. That’s natural, right?

So if we store the original object somewhere, and then proxy it, then things might break:

let allUsers = new Set();

class User {
  constructor(name) {
    this.name = name;
    allUsers.add(this);
  }
}

let user = new User("John");

alert(allUsers.has(user)); // true

user = new Proxy(user, {});

alert(allUsers.has(user)); // false

As we can see, after proxying we can’t find user in the set allUsers, because the proxy is a different object.

Proxies can’t intercept a strict equality test ===

Proxies can intercept many operators, such as new (with construct), in (with has), delete (with deleteProperty) and so on.

But there’s no way to intercept a strict equality test for objects. An object is strictly equal to itself only, and no other value.

So all operations and built-in classes that compare objects for equality will differentiate between the object and the proxy. No transparent replacement here.

Revocable proxies

A revocable proxy is a proxy that can be disabled.

Let’s say we have a resource, and would like to close access to it any moment.

What we can do is to wrap it into a revocable proxy, without any traps. Such proxy will forward operations to object, and we also get a special method to disable it.

The syntax is:

let {proxy, revoke} = Proxy.revocable(target, handler)

The call returns an object with the proxy and revoke function to disable it.

Here’s an example:

let object = {
  data: "Valuable data"
};

let {proxy, revoke} = Proxy.revocable(object, {});

// pass the proxy somewhere instead of object...
alert(proxy.data); // Valuable data

// later in our code
revoke();

// the proxy isn't working any more (revoked)
alert(proxy.data); // Error

A call to revoke() removes all internal references to the target object from the proxy, so they are no more connected. The target object can be garbage-collected after that.

We can also store revoke in a WeakMap, to be able to easily find it by the proxy:

let revokes = new WeakMap();

let object = {
  data: "Valuable data"
};

let {proxy, revoke} = Proxy.revocable(object, {});

revokes.set(proxy, revoke);

// ..later in our code..
revoke = revokes.get(proxy);
revoke();

alert(proxy.data); // Error (revoked)

The benefit of such approach is that we don’t have to carry revoke around. We can get it from the map by proxy when needeed.

Using WeakMap instead of Map here, because it should not block garbage collection. If a proxy object becomes “unreachable” (e.g. no variable references it any more), WeakMap allows it to be wiped from memory (we don’t need its revoke in that case).

References

Summary

Proxy is a wrapper around an object, that forwards operations to the object, optionally trapping some of them.

It can wrap any kind of object, including classes and functions.

The syntax is:

let proxy = new Proxy(target, {
  /* traps */
});

…Then we should use proxy everywhere instead of target. A proxy doesn’t have its own properties or methods. It traps an operation if the trap is provided or forwards it to target object.

We can trap:

  • Reading (get), writing (set), deleting (deleteProperty) a property (even a non-existing one).
  • Calling functions with new (construct trap) and without new (apply trap)
  • Many other operations (the full list is at the beginning of the article and in the docs).

That allows us to create “virtual” properties and methods, implement default values, observable objects, function decorators and so much more.

We can also wrap an object multiple times in different proxies, decorating it with various aspects of functionality.

The Reflect API is designed to complement Proxy. For any Proxy trap, there’s a Reflect call with same arguments. We should use those to forward calls to target objects.

Proxies have some limitations:

  • Built-in objects have “internal slots”, access to those can’t be proxied. See the workaround above.
  • The same holds true for private class fields, as they are internally implemented using slots. So proxied method calls must have the target object as this to access them.
  • Object equality tests === can’t be intercepted.
  • Performance: benchmarks depend on an engine, but generally accessing a property using a simplest proxy takes a few times longer. In practice that only matters for some “bottleneck” objects though.

Tasks

Create a proxy that throws an error for an attempt to read of a non-existant property.

That can help to detect programming mistakes early.

Write a function wrap(target) that takes an object target and return a proxy instead with that functionality.

That’s how it should work:

let user = {
  name: "John"
};

function wrap(target) {
  return new Proxy(target, {
      /* your code */
  });
}

user = wrap(user);

alert(user.name); // John
alert(user.age); // Error: Property doesn't exist
let user = {
  name: "John"
};

function wrap(target) {
  return new Proxy(target, {
    get(target, prop, receiver) {
      if (prop in target) {
        return Reflect.get(target, prop, receiver);
      } else {
        throw new ReferenceError(`Property doesn't exist: "${prop}"`)
      }
    }
  });
}

user = wrap(user);

alert(user.name); // John
alert(user.age); // Error: Property doesn't exist

In some languages, we can access array elements using negative indexes, counted from the end.

Like this:

let array = [1, 2, 3];

array[-1]; // 3, the last element
array[-2]; // 2, one step from the end
array[-3]; // 1, two steps from the end

In other words, array[-N] is the same as array[array.length - N].

Create a proxy to implement that behavior.

That’s how it should work:

let array = [1, 2, 3];

array = new Proxy(array, {
  /* your code */
});

alert( array[-1] ); // 3
alert( array[-2] ); // 2

// Other array functionality should be kept "as is"
let array = [1, 2, 3];

array = new Proxy(array, {
  get(target, prop, receiver) {
    if (prop < 0) {
      // even if we access it like arr[1]
      // prop is a string, so need to convert it to number
      prop = +prop + target.length;
    }
    return Reflect.get(target, prop, receiver);
  }
});


alert(array[-1]); // 3
alert(array[-2]); // 2

Create a function makeObservable(target) that “makes the object observable” by returning a proxy.

Here’s how it should work:

function makeObservable(target) {
  /* your code */
}

let user = {};
user = makeObservable(user);

user.observe((key, value) => {
  alert(`SET ${key}=${value}`);
});

user.name = "John"; // alerts: SET name=John

In other words, an object returned by makeObservable has the method observe(handler).

Whenever a property changes, handler(key, value) is called with the name and value o the property.

P.S. In this task, please handle only writing to a property. Other operations can be implemented in a similar way. P.P.S. You might want to introduce a global variable or a global structure to store handlers. That’s fine here. In real life, such function lives in a module, that has its own global scope.

The solution consists of two parts:

  1. Whenever .observe(handler) is called, we need to remember the handler somewhere, to be able to call it later. We can store it right in the object, using our symbol as the key.
  2. We need a proxy with set trap to call handlers in case of any change.
let handlers = Symbol('handlers');

function makeObservable(target) {
  // 1. Initialize handlers store
  target[handlers] = [];

  // Store the handler function in array for future calls
  target.observe = function(handler) {
    this[handlers].push(handler);
  };

  // 2. Create a proxy to handle changes
  return new Proxy(target, {
    set(target, property, value, receiver) {
      let success = Reflect.set(...arguments); // forward the operation to object
      if (success) { // if there were no error while setting the property
        // call all handlers
        target[handlers].forEach(handler => handler(property, value));
      }
      return success;
    }
  });
}

let user = {};

user = makeObservable(user);

user.observe((key, value) => {
  alert(`SET ${key}=${value}`);
});

user.name = "John";
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